Alexandria was founded around a small, ancient Egyptian town c. 332 BC by Alexander the Greatking of Macedon and leader of the Greek League of Corinth, during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire.

Alexandria  became  an  important   center   of Hellenistic   civilization and   remained   the   capital  of Ptolemaic Egypt and Roman and Byzantine Egypt for almost 1,000 years, until the Muslim conquest of Egypt in AD 641, when a new capital was founded at Fustat (later absorbed into Cairo).

Hellenistic Alexandria was best known for the Lighthouse of Alexandria (Pharos), one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World; its Great Library (the largest in the ancient world); and the Necropolis, one of the Seven Wonders of the Middle Ages.

Alexandria was at one time the second most powerful city of the ancient Mediterranean region, after Rome.

From the late 18th century, Alexandria became a major center of the international shipping industry and one of the most important trading centers in the world, both because it profited from the easy overland connection between the Mediterranean  Sea  and  the Red  Sea,  and  the  lucrative  trade in Egyptian cotton.

The Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa

The catacombs were named Kom El Shoqafa, meaning Mound of Shards, because the area used to contain a mound of shards which mostly consisted of jars and objects made of clay.

It’s 10-meter underground and was a private tomb, then used as a public tomb from the 2nd century to the 4th century, it was discovered by luck in 1900 when a donkey accidentally fell into the access shaft.

Due to the time period, many of the features of the catacombs of Kom el Shoqafa merge Roman, Greek and Egyptian cultural points; some statues are Egyptian in style, yet bear Roman clothes and hair style whilst other features share a similar style.

Pompey's Pillar

Is a Roman triumphal column in Alexandria, Egypt, and the largest of its type constructed outside of the imperial capitals of Rome.

The column measures 20.46 m in height with a diameter of 2.71 m at its base. The weight of the single piece of red Aswan granite is estimated at 285 ton, The column is 26.85 m high including its base  and capital

It was actually built in 297 AD, commemorating the victory of Roman emperor Diocletian over an Alexandrian revolution.

The Citadel of Qaitbay

Is a 15th-century defensive fortress located on the Mediterranean sea coast, in Alexandria, Egypt. It

was established in 1477 AD (882 AH) by Sultan Al-Ashraf Sayf Al-Din Qa'it Bay.

The Citadel is situated on the eastern side of  the  northern tip of  Pharos  Island  at  the  mouth of the Eastern Harbour

The Citadel was erected on the exact site of the famous

Lighthouse of Alexandria,which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina

It’s  a  major library and cultural   center located   on   the   shore   of   the   Mediterranean   Sea in the Egyptian city of Alexandria

The UNESCO was also quick to embrace the concept of endowing the Mediterranean region with a center of cultural and scientific excellence.

The Bibliotheca Alexandrina containing books in Arabic, English, and French, In 2010, the library received a donation of 500,000 books from the National Library of France, Bibliothèque nationale de France (BnF), this gift makes the Bibliotheca Alexandrina the sixth largest Francophone library in the world.